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ICANN adopted a new set of by-laws, which were first laid out by the aforementioned Evolution and Reform Committee, before being revised in response to Public Forums. Those by-laws can be read [http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/minutes-appa-31oct02.htm here]. The by-laws more clearly defined ICANN's mission and core values and improved apparatuses for review and greater transparency. The [[Reconsideration Committee]], [[IRP|Independent Review Panel]], and the [[Ombudsman]] all were strengthened as a part of this move towards a more transparent organization that is able to defend its actions and decisions.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/minutes-appa-31oct02.htm Appendix A to Minutes ICANN Board Meeting in Shanghai]. ICANN. Published 2002 October 31.</ref>
 
ICANN adopted a new set of by-laws, which were first laid out by the aforementioned Evolution and Reform Committee, before being revised in response to Public Forums. Those by-laws can be read [http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/minutes-appa-31oct02.htm here]. The by-laws more clearly defined ICANN's mission and core values and improved apparatuses for review and greater transparency. The [[Reconsideration Committee]], [[IRP|Independent Review Panel]], and the [[Ombudsman]] all were strengthened as a part of this move towards a more transparent organization that is able to defend its actions and decisions.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/minutes-appa-31oct02.htm Appendix A to Minutes ICANN Board Meeting in Shanghai]. ICANN. Published 2002 October 31.</ref>
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==Organization & Structure==
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==Debates over ICANN Organization==
It is central to ICANN's mission that the organization itself is structured in a way that welcomes a variety of voices and seeks to represent the extremely diverse constituencies with continued interest in the Internet's development, from [[Registry|registries]], to [[:Category:Companies|corporations]], to individual Internet users. In relation to ICANN's structural development, there have been critics who have taken issue with its closed-door sessions, the role of the [[DOC| U.S. Department of Commerce]], and other structural and procedural rules.<ref>[http://sunburn.stanford.edu/~eroberts/courses/cs181/projects/the-domain-name-system/icannorg.html ICANN Organizational Structure]. Stanford University.</ref> ICANN has been described as being in a contentious oversight situation; with some countries calling for all U.S. influence to be removed from the organization by subordinating it to the U.N.'s jurisdiction, or suggesting similar solutions.<ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/28/AR2011022803719.html?hpid=topnews Obama administration joins critics of U.S. nonprofit group that oversees Internet]. The Washington Post. Published 2011 March 1.</ref> ICANN's structure and process is outlined in the [[ICANN Bylaws]].
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: ''See [[ICANN Bodies]] for a list of the key players in ICANN's [[Multistakeholder Model]].''
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It is central to ICANN's mission that the organization is structured in a way that welcomes a variety of voices and seeks to represent diverse constituencies with continued interest in the Internet's development, from [[Registry|registries]], to [[:Category:Companies|corporations]], to individual Internet users. In relation to ICANN's structural development, there have been critics who have taken issue with its closed-door sessions, the role of the [[DOC|U.S. Department of Commerce]], and other structural and procedural rules.<ref>[http://sunburn.stanford.edu/~eroberts/courses/cs181/projects/the-domain-name-system/icannorg.html ICANN Organizational Structure]. Stanford University.</ref> ICANN has been described as being in a contentious oversight situation, with some countries calling for all U.S. influence to be removed from the organization by subordinating it to the U.N.'s jurisdiction, or suggesting similar solutions.<ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/28/AR2011022803719.html?hpid=topnews Obama administration joins critics of U.S. nonprofit group that oversees Internet]. The Washington Post. Published 2011 March 1.</ref> ICANN's structure and process are outlined in the [[ICANN Bylaws]].
    
===Board of Directors===
 
===Board of Directors===
 
: ''Main article: [[ICANN Board]]
 
: ''Main article: [[ICANN Board]]
ICANN is governed by a [[ICANN Board|Board of Directors]] made up of 15 voting members,<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/reviews/board/ Board Review]. ICANN.</ref> and the President and CEO, who is also a voting member. The board is further aided by five non-voting liaisons.<ref name="bylaws">[http://www.icann.org/en/general/bylaws.htm ICANN Bylaws]. ICANN.</ref> From ICANN's inception to December 2011, being a board member was a voluntary position. At that time, the [[ICANN Board]] responded to mounting pressure regarding conflicts of interest and the notion that compensation would create a more professional and accountable body by awarding themselves a $35,000 annual salary.<ref name="dotnxt">[http://news.dot-nxt.com/2011/12/13/icann-board-dec-minutes ICANN Board awards itself $35,000, developing countries $138,000, and adds to confusion with secondary timestamp]. dotnxt. Published 2011 December 13.</ref>
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ICANN is governed by a [[ICANN Board|Board of Directors]] made up of 16 voting members (including ICANN's CEO) and four non-voting liaisons.<ref name="bylaws">[http://www.icann.org/en/general/bylaws.htm ICANN Bylaws]. ICANN.</ref> From ICANN's inception to December 2011, being a board member was a voluntary position. At that time, the [[ICANN Board]] responded to mounting pressure regarding conflicts of interest and the notion that compensation would create a more professional and accountable body by awarding themselves a $35,000 annual salary.<ref name="dotnxt">[http://news.dot-nxt.com/2011/12/13/icann-board-dec-minutes ICANN Board awards itself $35,000, developing countries $138,000, and adds to confusion with secondary timestamp]. dotnxt. Published 2011 December 13.</ref>
    
===Ombudsman===
 
===Ombudsman===
 
: ''Main article: [[Ombudsman]]''
 
: ''Main article: [[Ombudsman]]''
The [[Ombudsman]]'s function is to act as an independent, impartial, and neutral informal dispute resolution officer for the ICANN community for those who want to lodge a complaint about ICANN staff, board, or supporting organizations. The office of the Ombudsman ensures that the members of the ICANN community are treated fairly and uses techniques such as mediation, shuttle diplomacy, and formal investigation if needed. The Ombudsman investigates issues without taking sides through an informal, flexible process. The current Ombudsman is [[Herb Waye]].
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The [[Ombudsman]]'s function is to act as an independent, impartial, and neutral informal dispute resolution officer for the ICANN community for those who want to lodge a complaint about ICANN staff, board, or supporting organizations. The independence of this office has been questioned, as the person in this role is hired and fired by the ICANN Board and reports to the ICANN Chair. The length and indefiniteness of tenure have also debated.  
    
===GNSO===
 
===GNSO===
 
: ''Main article: [[GNSO]]''
 
: ''Main article: [[GNSO]]''
 
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The [[Generic Names Supporting Organization]] (GNSO) brings together representatives of constituencies concerning [[gTLD]]s.<ref>[http://gnso.icann.org/ Generic Names Supporting Organization]. ICANN.</ref>
The [[Generic Names Supporting Organization]] (GNSO) brings together smaller stakeholder groups, which in turn bring together constituencies and other groups, together into one [[SO|Supporting Organization]] to develop policies, form consensus, and make recommendations related to [[gTLD]]s to the [[ICANN Board]].<ref>[http://gnso.icann.org/ Generic Names Supporting Organization]. ICANN.</ref>
      
===ccNSO===
 
===ccNSO===
Bureaucrats, Check users, lookupuser, Administrators, translator
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