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| revenue        = $6.9 billion (FY 2010)
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| revenue        = $6.9 billion (2010)
 
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| website        = [http://www.nsf.gov/index.jsp nsf.gov]
 
| website        = [http://www.nsf.gov/index.jsp nsf.gov]
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'''NSF''' stands for '''National Science Foundation'''. It is a non-profit organization of United States which supports and funds education and research in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. The similar organization which supports and funds education and research in all the medical fields of science is called the National Institutes of Health. It is a federal organization which supports research conducted by different colleges and Universities in United States in various fields of mathematics, computer Science, Economics and Social Sciences. NSF funds approximately 20% of all the federally supported research conducted in field of Science and engineering. It is the major federal supporter for various projects and researches. <ref>[http://enterprisepost.com/science/science/subra-suresh-confirmed-as-nsf-director.html enterprisepost.com]</ref><ref>[http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/ nsf.gov]nsb</ref>
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'''NSF''' stands for '''National Science Foundation'''. It is a non-profit organization in the United States that supports and funds education and research for all non-medical fields of science and engineering. It is a federal organization which supports research conducted by different United States colleges and universities in various fields of Mathematics, Computer Science, Economics and Social Sciences. NSF funds approximately 20% of all federally-supported research conducted in fields of science and engineering.<ref>[http://enterprisepost.com/science/science/subra-suresh-confirmed-as-nsf-director.html enterprisepost.com]</ref><ref>[http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/ nsf.gov]</ref>
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==History==
 
==History==
At the end of World War II the Americans understood the great contribution of researchers and scientists. The invention of Penicillin and the atomic bomb were among the large scale contributions by these scientists. Post war the researchers and scientists found it necessary to have a regulating and organizing body which will assist the future scientists and researchers to expand the frontiers of science and technology in the similar fashion. So in 1950 National Science Foundation was established. It still is the only federal agency which is dedicated to play a supportive role in various fundamental researches and education. Its main objective is to maintain the nation’s dominance in the field of science and technology. NSF has provided all the necessary support to thousands scientists and engineers to make some remarkable research. As a result NSF supported researches have been honored with 170 Nobel Prizes. <ref>[http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/ nsf.gov]History</ref>
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At the end of World War II, an era that saw the invention of Penicillin and the atomic bomb, post-war researchers and scientists found it necessary to have a regulating, organizational body that would assist future scientists and researchers in continuing to expand the frontiers of science and technology. So in 1950, the National Science Foundation was established, with the main objective being to maintain the nation’s dominance in the fields of science and technology. NSF is still the only federal agency dedicated to playing a supportive role in such fundamental research and education. It has provided all the necessary support to thousands scientists and engineers to make some remarkable research; NSF-supported researches have been honored with 170 Nobel Prizes.<ref>[http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/ NSF History]</ref>
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==Operations==   
 
==Operations==   
It provides competitive grants for a pre-determined period to certain proposals from various research centers. On an average, NSF receives 40,000 proposals annually, from which NSF funds about 10,000 proposals every year. The proposals which are funded are amongst the highest rankers in the merit review process. The merit review is based on a standard criteria which are examined for every proposal by different panels of independent scientists, engineers, and educators who are highly knowledgeable in the relevant field of proposal. These panel members are not the employees of NSF but are randomly selected by NSF according to their expertise in the relevant field; this member selection process ensures that there is unbiased evaluation process. All the evaluations are confidential, though proposing researchers may see the evaluation but they cannot see the names of the reviewers.  
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The National Science Foundation provides competitive grants for a pre-determined period to certain proposals from various research centers. On an average, NSF receives 40,000 proposals annually, from which NSF funds about 10,000. These proposals come from all levels of the scientific community, from individuals or group of investigators, to mid-scale research centers, to large research facilities, to national-level research endeavors like Antarctic research sites. It also provides educational scholarships to both graduate and undergraduate students through various programs.
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The proposals that are funded are amongst the highest rankers in the merit review process. The merit review is based on standard criteria, which each proposal is compared to by a panel of independent scientists, engineers, and educators who are highly knowledgeable in a field relevant to the proposal. These panel members are not the employees of NSF but are randomly selected by NSF according to their expertise in the field; this member selection process ensures that there is an unbiased evaluation process. All the evaluations are confidential; proposing researchers may see the evaluation, but they cannot see the names of the reviewers.<ref>[http://www.nsf.gov/about/glance.jsp NSF About]</ref><ref>[http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf99172/nsf99172.htm nsf.gov]</ref>
NSF grants funds to various researches on different levels. It funds individuals or group of investigators, mid scale research centers, various research facilities in different fields or funds national level researches such as Antarctic research sites. Besides providing funds to research in fields of science and engineering, NSF also provides assistance for education in the fields of science, engineering and mathematics. It provides funds to graduate and undergraduate students through different scholarship programs. <ref>[http://www.nsf.gov/about/glance.jsp nsf.gov]About</ref><ref name="link5">[http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf99172/nsf99172.htm nsf.gov]</ref>
   
    
 
    
 
==Criteria for the Review process==  
 
==Criteria for the Review process==  
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What are the future prospects of the activity in discovering and understanding while promoting teaching, training and learning? Can the proposed activity improve the participation of how well does the activity advance discovery and understanding while promoting teaching, training, and learning? How well does the proposed activity broaden the participation of groups (e.g., gender, ethnic, disability, geographic, etc.)? How will it improve the education and research in its field? How will the proposed activity benefit the society? <ref name="link5">[http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf99172/nsf99172.htm nsf.gov]</ref>
 
What are the future prospects of the activity in discovering and understanding while promoting teaching, training and learning? Can the proposed activity improve the participation of how well does the activity advance discovery and understanding while promoting teaching, training, and learning? How well does the proposed activity broaden the participation of groups (e.g., gender, ethnic, disability, geographic, etc.)? How will it improve the education and research in its field? How will the proposed activity benefit the society? <ref name="link5">[http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf99172/nsf99172.htm nsf.gov]</ref>
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==ICANN and NSF==
 
==ICANN and NSF==
In 1991, the U.S. government shifted all responsibility of non-military portion of ARPANET to the NSF. The National Science Foundation later lifted the restriction on commercial use of the network. NSF and Secretary of Commerce with a view of increasing the competition and to create an international participation founded a nonprofit organization for the administration of Internet, known as ICANN. <ref>[http://www.velocityguide.com/internet-history/icann.html velocityguide.com]</ref>
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In 1991, the U.S. government shifted all responsibility for the non-military portion of [[ARPANET]] to the NSF. The National Science Foundation later lifted the restriction on commercial use of the network. NSF and Secretary of Commerce, with a view of increasing competition and create an international participation, founded a nonprofit organization for the administration of Internet, known as [[ICANN]].<ref>[http://www.velocityguide.com/internet-history/icann.html velocityguide.com]</ref>
 
      
== References ==   
 
== References ==   
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{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
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[[category: glossary]]
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[[Category: Glossary]]
    
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