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3,258 bytes added, 3 years ago
Grafted GAC advice from GAC article.
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{{TLD|
|logo = Xxx.JPG‎
|manager =
|country = International
|stringcontention =
|registryprovider = ICM Registry
}}
'''.xxx''' is one of the a [[sTLD|sponsored top-level domain name ]] ([[sTLD]]) delegated in the [[Root Zone|root zone]] of the internet 's [[DNS|Domain Name System ]] ([[DNS]]). The TLD is intended for the "online adult-entertainment community." The [[IFFOR|International Foundation for Online Responsibility ]] ([[IFFOR]]) is the sponsoring organization and it is responsible in for creating and overseeing policies for the .xxx. IFFOR is a non-profit organization created by [[ICM Registry]], the registry operator of the .xxx. <ref>[http://iffor.org/about IFFOR-About Us]</ref>
The domain name space was launched for public registration on December 6, 2011. There were more than 100,000 domain names have already been pre-registered prior to its scheduled launching.<ref>[http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/g/a/2011/12/05/businessinsiderofficial-porn-domain.DTL Over 100,000 XXX Domain Names Are Going Live Tomorrow At 11 EST]</ref>
==History==
===.xxx Application during the 2000 ICANN Proof of Concept===
[[ICM Registry]] proposed the .xxx as non-sponsored [[gTLD|generic top-level domain name ]] ([[gTLD]]) during the ICANN Proof of Concept round in 2000. ICANN's evaluation team did not recommend the string because of the "controversy surrounding it and the poor
 definition 
of 
the
 hope for 
benefits
 of .xxx." On December 15, 2000, ICM Registry filed a Reconsideration Request with ICANN but no action was rendered. The [[ICANN Board ]] cited that "no new TLD proposals proposal has been rejected , rather a small set of potentially successful applicants had been selected with the aim of testing a diversity of approaches to the creation of new TLDs."
<ref>[http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/pubrelease/icann/pdfs/AppendixD_xxx.pdf Accountability
 and
 Transparency 
at ICANN
: An
 Independent
 Review]</ref>
===GAC Advice on the .xxx sTLD===On March 17, 2011, the GAC, via its Chairman [[Heather Dryden]], reiterated to ICANN Chairman [[Peter Dengate Thrush]] that the Committee has no active support for the implementation of the [[.xxx]] [[sTLD]]. The GAC also informed ICANN that some governments might prevent access to the TLD, which could harm the global interoperability and stability of the internet. Furthermore, the Committee also pointed out the possibility that ICANN may have to assume a management and oversight role regarding .xxx content.<ref>[http://news.dot-nxt.com/2011/03/17/gac-statement-dot-xxx GAC Statement on .xxx]</ref> Despite GAC's position, the [[ICANN Board]] approved the .xxx sTLD during the [[ICANN 41]] Meeting in San Francisco, on March 18, 2011.<ref>[http://news.dot-nxt.com/2011/04/03/summary-icann-san-francisco#xxx Conference summary: ICANN San Francisco]</ref> The disregard for the GAC's advice in this instance provided for a number of other international entities to question ICANN's ability to successfully manage the [[DNS]].
===.xxx during the 2003 sTLD Application Process===
On December 15, 2003, the ICANN Board published a Request For Proposal (RFP) for new sTLDs [[sTLD]]s after conducting public comments and extensive discussions within the different stakeholders within the ICANN community. [[ICM Registry ]] submitted a proposal for.xxx on March 16 2004. IFFOR was named as the sponsoring organization, which will be responsible in for developing policies for the proposed TLD. On In August , 2004, the [[IRP|Independent Review Panel]] evaluated ICM's application and reported to the [[ICANN Board]] that the the company failed to meet the baseline sponsorship criteria for a [[sTLD]].<ref>[http://www.iana.org/reports/2011/xxx-report-20110407.pdf Delegation of the .XXX top-level domain]</ref> Following the report, the ICANN Board approved a resolution allowing sTLD applicants to add additional information to resolve the concerns raised by IRP in the report. On In October , 2004, ICM Registry started submitting additional documents to strengthen its application. ICM Registry was invited to make a presentation on April 3, 2005.<ref>[http://archive.icann.org/en/tlds/stld-apps-19mar04/stld-status-report.pdf Status Report on the sTLD Evaluation Process]</ref>
Following the presentation, a special meeting was conducted by the [[ICANN Board ]] on May 3, 2005 and , where it discussed whether the sponsored community baseline criteria was met or not by ICM Registry. The Board decided to further discuss the issue on at another meeting. <ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/groups/board/documents/minutes-03may05-en.htm Minutes-Special Meeting of the Board May 3, 2005]</ref>
On June 1, 2005, the ICANN Board tasked charged [[ICANN President CEO]] [[Paul Twomey]] and General Counsel [[Jon Jeffrey]] to negotiate the proposed commercial and technical terms for a contractual agreement in connection with the delegation of the [[.xxx ]] sTLD.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/groups/board/documents/minutes-01jun05-en.htm Minutes Special Meeting of the Board, June 1, 2005]</ref>
On September 5, 2005, the proposed contractual agreement for .xxx sTLD was submitted to the ICANN Board for approval. It was also posted on ICANN's website. Significant A significant number of comments, correspondences and inquiries from the internet and Internet community were received by the Board relating to the contract. The Board directed the ICANN President CEO and the General Counsel to discuss the possible additional contractual provisions or modifications for the .xxx Registry Agreemet to ensure the development and implementation of policies consistent with the principles of ICM Registry application.<ref>[https://community.icann.org/display/tap/2005-09-15+-+Review+of+Proposed+.XXX+Sponsored+Top-Level+Domain+Registry+Agreement 2005-09-15 - Review of Proposed .XXX Sponsored Top-Level Domain Registry Agreement]</ref>
Several revisions were submitted and negotiations were made on the .xxx Registry Agreement between September 15, 2005 until January 5, 2007. Extensive comments and advice were also received from the global internet community and from the [[Government GAC|Governmental Advisory Council|GACCommittee]], which were evaluated by the ICANN Board. On March 30, 2007, the ICANN Board denied the ICM Registry application citing that the company failed to meet the Sponsored Community criteria set forth in the RFP, the .xxx sTLD raised public policy, approval of the Registry Agreement will not resolve the issue issues raised by GAC such as offensive content and protection of vulnerable members of the communitywere not properly adressed, the application raises raised significant law enforcement issues in different countries , and the application poses posed a possibility that ICANN might be forced to assume an ongoing management and oversight role regarding Internet content, which is inconsistent with its technical mandate.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/groups/board/documents/resolutions-30mar07-en.htm#_Toc36876524 Adopted Resolutions from ICANN Board Meeting, 30 March 2007]</ref>
===Independent Review Proceedings===ICM Registry contested the resolution of the Board resoultion and submitted a request for [[IRP|Independent Review Panel]] proceeding on June 6, 2008.Entities may request for an IRP to resolve allegations their claims that the ICANN Board acted or decided in a manner inconsistent with the organizations organization's Articles of Incorporation. The IRP is a final appeal to ensure transparency ; and since the establishment of ICANNdue to this, ICM Registry was the first entity to utilize this provisionin the history of ICANN. ICM complained that ICANN exceeded its mission mandate during the evaluation process and violated the its Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws. The internet ICM claimed that the Internet governing body improperly administered the 2003 RFP process for sTLD sTLDs and its decision lacks transparency and is discriminatory. In addition, the company alleged that ICANN . <ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/news/irp/icm-v-icann ICM's Request for Independent Review Process]</ref>
ICANN Responded responded on Septemebr 8, 2008 and argued that ICM's allegations are were false. The internet governing body organization pointed out that ICANN's its evaluation on of ICM's application was were more open and transparent, and that the negotiations conducted on June 1, 2005 was were not binding to and di not assure approval of the Registry agreement. ICANN tried to work closely with ICM to resolve the problems in the application , however, the ICANN Board believed that the underlying problems will would not be resolved by awarding a contract. ICANN strongly emphasized that the decision was made in good faith to deny ICM's application.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/news/irp/icm-v-icann ICANN's Response to ICM's IRP Request]</ref>
Both parties submitted their briefing papers and testimonies to the three-member IRP which was handled by the [[ICDR|International Centre for Dispute Resolution]] of the [[American Arbitration Association|AAA]]. On February 19, 2010, the IRP ruled in favor of ICM. Two of the panelist agreed that ICM met the criteria for sponsorship citing that, "the Board’s reconsideration of that finding was not consistent with the application of neutral, objective and fair documented policy." The opinion of the other panelist was contrary. He said that ICM did not meet the sTLD sponsorship requirements and ICANN carried out its decision with transparency.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/news/irp/icm-v-icann Independent Review Panel Declaration]</ref> Moreover, the declaration of the IRP is not a binding order rather an advisory or recommendation for the ICANN Board to consider as stated on Article IV Section 3(15) of the ICANN Bylaws stating that, "Where feasible, the Board shall consider the IRP declaration at the Board's next meeting."<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/about/governance/bylaws#IV ICANN Bylaws]</ref>
On March 12, 2010, the ICANN Board considered the IRP declaration and delegated the tasked ICANN CEO and General Counsel to develop a final report for possible process options to be posted on the website.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/groups/board/documents/resolutions-12mar10-en.htm#15 Adopted Board Resolutions, Nairobi, March 12, 2010]</ref> The ICANN Board received and evaluated 13,700 comments regarding the process options. On June 25, 2010, the ICANN Board to accept the majority recommendation of the IRP and directed the ICANN Staff to ensure that the ICM application is still current and no changes have been made to the company's qualifications.In addition, the ICANN Staff was were also authorized to develop a contract with ICM to be reviewed by the Board to ensure that it is consistent with [[GAC]]'s advice, if not, consultation with GAC will be done prior to approval of the contract.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/groups/board/documents/resolutions-25jun10-en.htm#5 Adopted Board Resolutions | Brussels]</ref> On August 5, 2010, the proposed [[Registry Agreement ]] was posted for public comments.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/groups/board/documents/resolutions-05aug10-en.htm#9 Adopted Board Resolutions]</ref>ICANN's chairman initiated a consultation process with GAC Chair regarding the proposed ICM Registry Agreement.Prior to the schedule personal consultation, the GAC sent a letter to ICANN stating that it has no active support for the introduction of the .xxx string and governments might take actions to prohibit internet access to the TLD, which is a threat to the universal stability of the DNS.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/groups/.../draft-icm-rationale-18mar11-en.pdf Draft Rationale for Approving ICM Registry Agreement]</ref>
During the [[ICANN 40]] meeting in San Francisco on in March , 2011, the ICANN Board approved the ICM application. <ref>[http://www.above.com/blog/2011/03/xxx-approved-at-icann-40.html .XXX Approved at ICANN 40]</ref> The .xxx string was delegated to the [[Root Zone|root zone]] of the [[DNS on ]] in June , 2011.<ref>[http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9178518/ICANN_board_approves_dot_XXX_top_level_domain_for_porn?taxonomyId=18&pageNumber=2 ICANN board approves dot-XXX top-level domain for porn]</ref>
==.xxx Sponsored CommunityPolicies==The sponsored sponsoring community of the .xxx include includes individuals, companies and , organizations , providers of adult entertainment, representatives of providers and products or service providers. Some of these entities include adult web masterswebsite administrators, club owners, performers, agents, lawyers, distributors and manufacturers or adult products. All entities interested to register in registering a .xxx domain need to become a member of the community. Individuals must provide correct date of birth, address, phone number, confirm membership to the community , and accept the Registry-Registrant Agreement. <ref>[http://www.icmregistry.com/about/sponsored-community/ Who Qualifies for the Sponsored Community]</ref>
==Policies==The [[IFFOR ]] implements policies to comply with the its agreements; to protect the privacy, security and consumer rights of consenting adults, ; to help user choice and parental control with regards to access to online adult contents content; and to fight child abuse images. Its' baseline policies include:<ref>[http://www.icmregistry.com/policies/iffor/ IFFOR Baseline Policies]</ref>* Registration is restricted to sponsored the sponsoring community* The organizations organization implements eligibility verification process to processes with all registrants interested to become in becoming a member of the sponsored sponsoring community.* Reasonable Technological Mechanisms will be used to authenticate the identity of registrants.* Registrants must agree to the labeling requirements and as all .xxx sites are redirected using use an IFFOR aproved label.* Child abuse images and conduct are prohibited , including contents content designed to suggest the availability of child abuse images.* Registrants must agree to automated scanning of their sites to ensure compliance to of IFFOR policies and ; using technologies technology to prevent scanning is prohibited.* Abusive registration ([[Intellectual Property ]] rights and Trademarks infringements) is not allowed* Malicious Conduct is prohibited such as email spoofing, [[phishing]], spamming, spam and other illegal cyber activities.* Registrants must comply to with the IFFOR Best Practices Guidelines.
* All registrants violating the IFFOR policies will be disqualified. Violators of the prohibitions on child abuse images and the implementation of automated scanning will be referred to third parties such as law enforcement agencies, hotlines, etc.
===Dispute Resolution Programs===The '''Rapid Evaluation Service (RES)''' was introduced by the [[National Arbitration Forum]] (FORUM) that will , to serve as dispute resolution program to protect the stage names of adult entertainers and performers from infringements. Complaints filed under RES in proper circumstances will be handled within two business days and the infringing domain names will be taken down. The '''Charter Eligibility Dispute Resolution Policy (CEDRP)''' of ICM is also handled by FORUM. Entities may file complaints and challenge the ownership eligibility of entities for .xxx domain names.<ref>
[http://www.icmregistry.com/press/national-arbitration-forum-launches-dispute-program-for-xxx-domain-names/ National Arbitration Forum Launches Dispute Program for .XXX Domain Names]</ref>
==Premium .xxx Domain NamesStatistics==ICM Registry sold several As of its premium June 2, 2013, .xxx domain names for top price including gay.xxx which was purchased by Liberty Media Holdings (Corbin Fisher)had 122,000 active registrations,after a porn production based in Las Vegas for $500peak at 142,000in December 2012.<ref>During May 2013, [[http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/10/07/4500k_for_gay_dot_xxx_address/ GayICM Registry]] cut the prices for .xxx sells for $500,000]</ref> Shemalesnames down to .xxx was sold $200com-level prices,000 to Grooby Productionsresulting in a large number of registrations during that month.<ref>[http://www.thedomainsdomainincite.com/2011/10/17/shemales13245-xxxicm-sellsprice-forcut-200000sees-3-1210-times-more-thanxxx-the-net-sold-for/ SheMales.XXX Sells For $200sales ICM Price Cut sees 10 times more xxx sales,000; 3 1/2 Times More Than The .Net Sold ForDomain Incite]Retrieved 19 Sept 2013</ref> Meanwhile, [[Mike Berkens]], president of [[Worldwide Media]] invested six figures on three domain names FreePorn The following are the top 10 .xxx, BlowJobs.xxx, and AnalSex.xxx.registrars as of February 2012:<ref>[http://www.elliotsblogdomainnamewire.com/mike2012/06/07/xxx-berkensup-investsto-in137k-xxxactive-domainsregistrations-0737 Mike Berkens Invests in .XXX Domains]</ref> [[Frank Schilling]], a domain name investor paid seven figures for amateur.xxx, anal.xxx, asian.xxx, bollywood.xxx, book.xxx, celeb.xxx, chat.xxx, dating.xxx, hardcore.xxx, sexy.xxx, video.xxx, webcam.xxx and several other domain names.<ref>[http://www.elliotsblog.com/frank220k-schillingtotal-tookand-risknew-on630k-xxxpremium-8017 Frank Schilling Spends Seven Figures on sale/ .XXX Domain Namesup to 137k active registrations, 220k total, and new $630k premium sale, domainnamewire]</ref>
==Suspended .xxx Domain Names==Stuart Lawley# [[Go Daddy]] - 36, CEO of ICM confirmed that the company suspended the registration for several .xxx domain names due to unmistakable111 ([[Wild West Domains]], blatant [[cybersquattingBlue Razor]])# [[Network Solutions]]. The suspended domain names include businessweek.xxx- 16, cnbc.xxx, geocities.xxx, nextag.xxx, snapfish.xxx, verizonwireless.xxx, washingtonpost.xxx and gayroom.xxx. Lawley emphasized and reiterated that his company is serious in implementing its policies and it is committed in maintaining high standard registry operations. He said, ''"We will not tolerate nefarious conduct and will exercise our right to take appropriate action when we detect widespread repeat patterns of cyber-squatting activity. Would-be cyber633# [[Instra]] -squatters are on notice – neither ICM Registry nor the .xxx community will be complicit in the theft or abuse of intellectual property. ICM takes a stand to facilitate user choice and parental control4, protect the privacy, security, and consumer rights of consenting adults, fight child abuse images, and protect intellectual property.”'' <ref>636# [[http://www.icmregistryName.com/press/icm]] -registry4,272# [[eNom]] -acts4,210# [[United Domains]] -in3,820# [[Tucows]] -response3,750# [[Ascio Technologies]] -to3,645# [[PublicDomainRegistry]] -reports3,450# [[CSC]] -of-cyber-squatting/ ICM Registry Acts in Response to Reports of Cyber-squatting]</ref>3,198
==Free =Premium .xxx Domain Names===As part ICM Registry sold several of ICM's Adult Performer Programits premium .xxx domain names for large sums, including gay.xxx, which was purchased by Liberty Media Holdings (Corbin Fisher), the a porn production company partnered with domain name registrar based in Las Vegas, for $500,000.<ref>[http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/10/07/4500k_for_gay_dot_xxx_address/ Gay.xxx sells for $500,000]</ref> Shemales.xxx was sold for $200,000 to Grooby Productions.<ref>[Namehttp://www.thedomains.com]] partnered in offering a one/2011/10/17/shemales-xxx-sells-year free domain name registration for -200000-3-12-times-more-than-the-net-sold-for/ SheMales.XXX Sells For $200,500 selected porn stars000; 3 1/2 Times More Than The . The Net Sold For]</ref> Meanwhile, [[Mike Berkens]], president of [[Worldwide Media]] invested six figures on three domain names were reserved by ICM : FreePorn.xxx, BlowJobs.xxx, and the $210,000 registry fee was paid in advance by NameAnalSex.comxxx.<ref>[http://domainincitewww.elliotsblog.com/icmmike-offersberkens-freeinvests-in-xxx-domains-to0737 Mike Berkens Invests in .XXX Domains]</ref> [[Frank Schilling]], a domain name investor paid seven figures for amateur.xxx, anal.xxx, asian.xxx, bollywood.xxx, book.xxx, celeb.xxx, chat.xxx, dating.xxx, hardcore.xxx, sexy.xxx, video.xxx, webcam.xxx and several other domain names.<ref>[http://www.elliotsblog.com/frank-schilling-took-risk-on-pornxxx-stars/ ICM offers free 8017 Frank Schilling Spends Seven Figures on .xxx domains to porn starsXXX Domain Names]</ref>
==References=Free .xxx Domain Names==={{reflist}}As part of ICM's Adult Performer Program, the company partnered with domain name registrar [[Name.com]] in offering a one-year free domain name registration for 3,500 selected porn stars. The domain names were reserved by ICM and the $210,000 registry fee was paid in advance by Name.com.<ref>[http://domainincite.com/icm-offers-free-xxx-domains-to-porn-stars/ ICM offers free .xxx domains to porn stars]</ref>
===Suspended .xxx Domain Names===
Stuart Lawley, CEO of ICM confirmed that the company suspended the registration for several .xxx domain names due to unmistakable, blatant [[cybersquatting]]. The suspended domain names include businessweek.xxx, cnbc.xxx, geocities.xxx, nextag.xxx, snapfish.xxx, verizonwireless.xxx, washingtonpost.xxx and gayroom.xxx. Lawley emphasized and reiterated that his company is serious about implementing its policies and it is committed to maintaining high standards for its registry operations. He said, ''"We will not tolerate nefarious conduct and will exercise our right to take appropriate action when we detect widespread repeat patterns of cyber-squatting activity. Would-be cyber-squatters are on notice – neither ICM Registry nor the .xxx community will be complicit in the theft or abuse of intellectual property. ICM takes a stand to facilitate user choice and parental control, protect the privacy, security, and consumer rights of consenting adults, fight child abuse images, and protect intellectual property.”''<ref>[http://www.icmregistry.com/press/icm-registry-acts-in-response-to-reports-of-cyber-squatting/ ICM Registry Acts in Response to Reports of Cyber-squatting]</ref>
==ICM-Operated Sites==
===Search.xxx===
In September, 2012, the .xxx centric search engine at search.xxx was launched by ICM Registry. The search engine does not have a direct revenue model, but is instead a means of directing greater traffic to .xxx sites. Touted benefits of the search engine include: a pornographic focused search rather than a search that could result in non-pornographic sexual material, a safe and focused search for adults, the ability to search via sexual orientation, and not saving or recording searches to one's Google search history. The long-term goal is to increase the market-share of .xxx.<ref>[http://www.cnbc.com/id/49212131/ CNBC.com]</ref>
==Other==
===Russian iTunes Glitch===
On December 5th 2012, sections of the Russian iTunes store featured out of place banner ads and explicit content from ICM's registry internal search engine, xxx.xxx. Bloggers speculated than an Apple Web Developer may have entered the "xxx.xxx" as a placeholder not realizing that the URL would resolve as a live domain.<ref>[http://domainincite.com/11253-russian-itunes-store-infiltrated-by-xxx-banners-after-snafu-nsfw Russian iTunes Store Infiltrated by XXX Banners after Snafu, DomainIncite.com] Retrieved & Published 5 Dec 2012</ref>
==References==
<div style="column-count:2;-moz-column-count:2;-webkit-column-count:2">
{{reflist}}</div>
[[Category:TLD]]
[[Category:TLDs with Registry Agreements|xxx]]

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