Domain Name System

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DNS (Domain Name System) is the system used to translate alphanumeric domain names into Internet Protocol numbers.[1]

Short overview

The DNS is made up of many servers and databases which, through a series of lookups in various caches, resolve Domain Names to IP Addresses. The Domain Name System is a distributed database arranged hierarchically. Its purpose is to provide a layer of abstraction between other Internet services (web, email, etc.) and the numeric addresses (IP addresses) used to uniquely identify any given machine on the Internet. The DNS associates various information with the domain names assigned and, most importantly, translates the domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical identifiers that locate these devices at worldwide level.

How does it work?

The DNS makes it possible to assign domain names in a meaningful way to Internet resources as well as to users, regardless of the entity's location. As a result, the WWW hyperlinks (World Wide Web) will remain consistent, even in the case of using a mobile device. Due to the fact that the Internet domain names are easier for humans to keep track of than IP addresses, this is an important advantage for the user because the computer will locate the URLs or even e-mail addresses the users may be looking for.

Coordination across the Internet is maintained by means of a complex authoritative root system known as Top Level Domain, DNS and other smaller name servers responsible for hosting individual domain information. For each domain, the DNS spreads the responsibility by mapping the domain names and assigning them into IP addresses, and vice-versa. This is accomplished through authoritative name servers which are being designated for each domain. Each authoritative name server is responsible for its own particular domain, while having the authority to assign new authoritative name servers to any of their sub-domains. The DNS is able to store many types of information, even the mail server lists for a specific domain. In order to ensure the functionality of the Internet, the DNS is a core element through its distributed keyword-based redirection service.

However, the DNS does not include security extension, which was further developed as DNSSEC.

The structure of a DNS

The Domain Name System presents the following structure:

  • Domain space name: represented by tree of domain names with nodes and leaves
  • Domain name syntax: rules include in standards like RFC 1035, RFC 1123, and RFC 2181
  • Name server
  • Domain names Internationalized
  • DNS resolver: initiates the queries will finally lead to the complete translation (resolution) of the information.

DNS Services

These types of services include:

  1. Managing the DNS
    1. By means of powerful, secure and complete tools and DNS administration options such as Manage A records or MX records
    2. By means of controlling and managing the traffic: all users should react the website they desire even if this involved the regional server or any other network.
  2. Hosting the DNS
    1. Efficient DNS resolution
  3. Location DNS services: to ease the visitors' work, increase the visitor's satisfaction and strengthen the relationship with all visistors.[2]


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