Difference between revisions of "Public Interest Registry"

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'''Public Interest Registry''' (PIR) is a [[gTLD|generic top-level Domain]] [[registry]] that manages the [[.org]] [[TLD|top level domain]]. The non-profit was established in January, 2003 by the Virginia-based [[ISOC|Internet Society]] (ISOC). PIR was formed to take over the operation and maintenance of the .org domain and its database from [[Verisign]] Global Registry Services. The organization has its office in Reston, Virginia.
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'''Public Interest Registry''' (PIR) is a [[gTLD|generic top-level Domain]] [[registry]] that manages the [[.org]] [[TLD|top level domain]]. The non-profit was established in January 2003 by the Virginia-based [[ISOC|Internet Society]] (ISOC). PIR was formed to take over the operation and maintenance of the .org domain and its database from [[Verisign]] Global Registry Services. The organization has its office in Reston, Virginia.
  
As of June, 2012, there are 10 million million registered .org addresses, which bring in an annual revenue of $65 million. The funds are used for operating costs and technical and organizational maintenance; the remaining funds are donated to [[ISOC]].<ref>[http://philanthropy.com/article/Nonprofits-May-Soon-Say/130290/ Nonprofits May Soon, Philanthropy.com]</ref><ref>[http://www.domainnews.com/en/org-seventh-tld-to-pass-ten-millionth-registration-milestone.html?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter Org Seventh TLD To Pass Ten Millionth Registration Mileston, DomainNews.com]</ref>
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As of June 2012, there are 10 million million registered .org addresses, which bring in an annual revenue of $65 million. The funds are used for operating costs and technical and organizational maintenance; the remaining funds are donated to [[ISOC]].<ref>[http://philanthropy.com/article/Nonprofits-May-Soon-Say/130290/ Nonprofits May Soon], Philanthropy.com</ref><ref>[http://www.domainnews.com/en/org-seventh-tld-to-pass-ten-millionth-registration-milestone.html?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter Org Seventh TLD To Pass Ten Millionth Registration Mileston], DomainNews.com</ref>
  
The organization is applying for [[.ngo]] through ICANN's 2012 [[New gTLD Program|new gTLD program]].<ref>[http://www.ngotld.org/ Home, NGOTLD.org]</ref>
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The organization is applying for [[.ngo]] through ICANN's 2012 [[New gTLD Program|new gTLD program]].<ref>[http://www.ngotld.org/ Home], NGOTLD.org.</ref>
  
Backend registry services are handled by [[Afilias]].
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The company's backend registry services are handled by [[Afilias]].
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
The .org top-level domain was first created in October, 1984 by the [[IANA|Internet Assigned Numbers Authority]],<ref>[http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/org.html IANA]</ref> as part of its implementation of the [http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc920 RFC 920]. Though the RFC limited the scope of the .org domain to non-profit organizations or to organizations of a non-commercial nature, over time the scope of the domain has expanded to include any entity, whether organizational or individual, commercial or non-commercial.
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The .org top-level domain was first created in October 1984 by the [[IANA|Internet Assigned Numbers Authority]],<ref>[http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/org.html IANA.org].</ref> as part of its implementation of the [http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc920 RFC 920]. Though the RFC limited the scope of the .org domain to non-profit organizations or to organizations of a non-commercial nature, over time, the scope of the domain has expanded to include any entity, whether organizational or individual, commercial or non-commercial.
  
 
The first .org domain was registered by MITRE Corporation, a non-profit organization providing systems engineering and information technology support to the US government, on July 10, 1985.
 
The first .org domain was registered by MITRE Corporation, a non-profit organization providing systems engineering and information technology support to the US government, on July 10, 1985.
  
On May 25, 2001, [[ICANN]] entered into an unsponsored registry agreement with [[Verisign]] Inc. for operating the .org domain.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/tlds/agreements/verisign/registry-agmt-org-25may01.htm .org Registry Agreement]</ref>  This agreement expired on December 31, 2002. A request for proposal was circulated by ICANN on May 20, 2002.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/tlds/org/rfp-20may02.htm .org Reassignment: Request for Proposals]</ref> [[ISOC|The Internet Society]] was one of the eleven applicants who put in their proposals to become the successor operator.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/tlds/org/applications/ .org Reassignment: Index to Applications]</ref> ISOC proposed to set up a separate entity, the "Public Interest Registry", to operate the .org [[gTLD]], with the sole power to appoint its board of directors. As part of the arrangement, PIR would appoint [[Afilias]] to handle the full range of back-end registry services on behalf of PIR. The [[ICANN Board]] selected PIR as the successor operator to Verisign for managing the .org gTLD on October 14, 2002.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/minutes/prelim-report-14oct02.htm#SuccessorOperatorfororgRegistry ICANN Special Meeting of the Board Preliminary Report (14 October 2002)]</ref> Finally, the reins of .org domain came into PIR's control in January, 2003; the agreement was signed for a period of 3 years, expiring December, 2006.
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On May 25, 2001, [[ICANN]] entered into an unsponsored registry agreement with [[Verisign]] Inc. for operating the .org domain.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/tlds/agreements/verisign/registry-agmt-org-25may01.htm .org Registry Agreement]. ICANN.org. Published 2001 May 25.</ref>  This agreement expired on December 31, 2002. A request for proposal was circulated by ICANN on May 20, 2002.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/tlds/org/rfp-20may02.htm .org Reassignment: Request for Proposals], ICANN.org. Published 2002 May 20.</ref> [[ISOC|The Internet Society]] was one of the eleven applicants who put in their proposals to become the successive operator.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/tlds/org/applications/ .org Reassignment: Index to Applications], ICANN.org.</ref> ISOC proposed to set up a separate entity, the "Public Interest Registry", to operate the .org [[gTLD]], with the sole power to appoint its board of directors. As part of the arrangement, PIR would appoint [[Afilias]] to handle the full range of back-end registry services on behalf of PIR. The [[ICANN Board]] selected PIR as the successor operator to Verisign for managing the .org gTLD on October 14, 2002.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/minutes/prelim-report-14oct02.htm#SuccessorOperatorfororgRegistry ICANN Special Meeting of the Board Preliminary Report], ICANN.org. Published 2002 October 14.</ref> Finally, the reins of .org domain came into PIR's control in January 2003; the agreement was signed for a period of three years, expiring December 2006.
  
On December 8, 2006, the agreement between ICANN and PIR was renewed for another 6.5 years, and is set to expire on June 30, 2013.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/tlds/agreements/org/registry-agmt-16jul08.htm .org Registry Agreement ]</ref>
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On December 8, 2006, the agreement between ICANN and PIR was renewed for another 6.5 years, and is set to expire on June 30, 2013.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/tlds/agreements/org/registry-agmt-16jul08.htm .org Registry Agreement], ICANN.org. Published 2008 July 16.</ref>
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.org has emerged as the third-largest generic top-level domain in the world, as per the bi-annual domain name report published by PIR for dates of January to June 2010.<ref name="dashboard">[http://www.pir.org/pdf/dashboard_1H_2010.pdf PIR's "The Dashboard," January - June, 2010], PIR.org.</ref>
  
.org has emerged as the third-largest generic top-level domain in the world, as per the bi-annual domain name report published by PIR for January to June 2010.<ref>[http://www.pir.org/pdf/dashboard_1H_2010.pdf PIR's "The Dashboard," January - June, 2010]</ref>
 
 
===.org Statistics===
 
===.org Statistics===
A Bi-Annual report on the growth of [[.org]] showed that as of late 2011 there were 9.6 million .org registrations. Throughout the 2011 year, .org registrations grew by 9.9%. The renewal rate for the second-half of 2011 was 75.4%. On June, 24th, 2012, registration for .org passed the 10 million mark. The ten millionth registration was for JADFORUM.org, registered by the Jordan River and Dead Sea Basin Forum via [[GoDaddy]]. It was the 7th TLD to pass the milestone, the others being: [[.com]], [[.de]] (2006), [[.net]] (2007), [[.uk]] (2012), [[.cn]], and [[.tk]].<ref>[http://www.domainnews.com/en/org-seventh-tld-to-pass-ten-millionth-registration-milestone.html?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter Org Seventh TLD To Pass 10 Millionth Registration Milestone, DomainNews.com]</ref>
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A Bi-Annual report on the growth of [[.org]] showed that as of late 2011 there were 9.6 million .org registrations. Throughout the 2011 year, .org registrations grew by 9.9%. The renewal rate for the second-half of 2011 was 75.4%. On June 24th, 2012, registration for .org passed the 10 million mark. The ten millionth registration was for jadforum.org, registered by the Jordan River and Dead Sea Basin Forum via [[GoDaddy]]. It was the 7th TLD to pass the milestone, the others being: [[.com]], [[.de]] (2006), [[.net]] (2007), [[.uk]] (2012), [[.cn]], and [[.tk]].<ref>[http://www.domainnews.com/en/org-seventh-tld-to-pass-ten-millionth-registration-milestone.html Org Seventh TLD To Pass 10 Millionth Registration Milestone], DomainNews.com.</ref>
  
Registration of .org has consistently grown by 9 -10% annually for the past three years.<ref>[http://www.marketwatch.com/story/org-the-public-interest-registry-releases-results-of-bi-annual-domain-name-report-the-dashboard-2012-02-15 ORG Public Interest Registry Releases Results of Bi Annual Domain Name Report The Dashboard 2012-2-15, MarketWatch.com]</ref>
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Registration of .org has consistently grown by 9% to 10% annually for the past three years.<ref>[http://www.marketwatch.com/story/org-the-public-interest-registry-releases-results-of-bi-annual-domain-name-report-the-dashboard-2012-02-15 ORG Public Interest Registry Releases Results of Bi Annual Domain Name Report The Dashboard], MarketWatch.com. Published 2012 February 15.</ref>
  
 
== Governance ==
 
== Governance ==
PIR is governed by a Board of Directors who are appointed by [[ISOC]]. The board comprises seven members; the current Chairman is [[Maarten Botterman]]. The CEO of PIR is an ex-officio board member.  
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PIR is governed by a Board of Directors who are appointed by [[ISOC]]. The board is comprised of seven members, and its current Chairman is [[Maarten Botterman]]. The CEO of PIR is an ex-officio board member.  
  
 
The PIR management team comprises five senior members of the organization from three departments - law and policy, marketing, and finance/operations. Ms. [[Alexa Raad]], the original CEO of PIR, stepped down from the position on September 24, 2010. Mr. Maarten Botterman served as interim CEO until [[Brian Cute]] was appointed to the position. The organization presently has eight staff members on its payroll.
 
The PIR management team comprises five senior members of the organization from three departments - law and policy, marketing, and finance/operations. Ms. [[Alexa Raad]], the original CEO of PIR, stepped down from the position on September 24, 2010. Mr. Maarten Botterman served as interim CEO until [[Brian Cute]] was appointed to the position. The organization presently has eight staff members on its payroll.
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== Deployment of DNSSEC ==
 
== Deployment of DNSSEC ==
In April, 2008, PIR submitted a request to ICANN to amend the .org registry, specifically the function of the registry and the corresponding [[Whois]] and [[DNS]] systems for the .org gTLD, in order to facilitate the use of "Domain Name System Security Extensions" ([[DNSSEC]]) as specified in RFCs 4033, 4034, 4035 and 5155.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/registries/rsep/pir-request-03apr08.pdf Registrar Survey for DNSSec Deployment in .ORG]</ref> The ICANN board approved this proposal in June, 2008.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/resolutions-26jun08.htm#_Toc76113176 ICANN Adopted Board Resolutions (26 June 2008)]</ref>
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In April 2008, PIR submitted a request to ICANN to amend the .org registry, specifically the function of the registry and the corresponding [[Whois]] and [[DNS]] systems for the .org gTLD, in order to facilitate the use of "Domain Name System Security Extensions" ([[DNSSEC]]) as specified in RFCs 4033, 4034, 4035 and 5155.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/registries/rsep/pir-request-03apr08.pdf Registrar Survey for DNSSec Deployment in .ORG], ICANN.org. Published 2008 April 3.</ref> The ICANN board approved this proposal in June, 2008.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/resolutions-26jun08.htm#_Toc76113176 ICANN Adopted Board Resolutions (26 June 2008)], ICANN.org. Published 2008 June 26.</ref>
  
On June 23, 2010, Ms. [[Alexa Raad]], PIR's CEO at that time, announced at an ICANN 38 Brussels press conference that .org has become the first generic top-level domain to offer full deployment of [[DNSSEC]]. DNSSEC had become the most robust security protocol on the internet as of 2010, and registrars who have implemented DNSSEC in their system can "offer added security protection to their customers by enabling .org website owners to sign their respective domain name with validation keys."<ref>[http://www.pir.org/pdf/dashboard_1H_2010.pdf PIR's "The Dashboard," January - June, 2010]</ref>
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On June 23, 2010, Ms. [[Alexa Raad]], PIR's CEO at that time, announced at an ICANN 38 Brussels press conference that .org has become the first generic top-level domain to offer full deployment of [[DNSSEC]]. DNSSEC had become the most robust security protocol on the internet as of 2010, and registrars who have implemented DNSSEC in their system can "offer added security protection to their customers by enabling .org website owners to sign their respective domain name with validation keys."<ref name="dashboard"></ref>
  
The benefit of DNSSEC to a .org registrant is the "added ability to thwart the increased predominance of attacks like pharming, cache poisoning, [[DNS]] redirection and domain hijacking - all of which have been used to commit fraud, distribute malware and identity theft."<ref>[http://www.pir.org/pdf/dashboard_1H_2010.pdf PIR's "The Dashboard," January - June, 2010]</ref>
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The benefit of DNSSEC to a .org registrant is the "added ability to thwart the increased predominance of attacks like pharming, cache poisoning, [[DNS]] redirection and domain hijacking - all of which have been used to commit fraud, distribute malware and identity theft."<ref name="dashboard"></ref>
  
 
==.NGO==
 
==.NGO==
PIR announced ahead of the January, 2012 launch of [[ICANN]]'s [[New gTLD Program|new gTLD program]] that it was planning on applying for [[.ngo]]; the PIR iniatiative was a platinum sponsor of [[ICANN 42]] in Dakar.<ref>[http://dakar42.icann.org/ Dakar42, ICANN.org]</ref> PIR also announced that it had intentions to implement an authentication process that would ensure that all .ngo registrants were actual NGOs, given their frustration with the fact that [[.org]] was an open TLD despite its intention for non-profits. A competitive iniative was announced by [[dotNGO]].<ref>[http://philanthropy.com/article/Nonprofits-May-Soon-Say/130290/ Nonprofits May Soon Say, Philanthropy.com]</ref>
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PIR announced ahead of the January 2012 launch of [[ICANN]]'s [[New gTLD Program|new gTLD program]] that it was planning on applying for [[.ngo]]; the PIR iniatiative was a platinum sponsor of [[ICANN 42]] in Dakar.<ref>[http://dakar42.icann.org/ Dakar42], ICANN.org.</ref> PIR also announced that it had intentions to implement an authentication process that would ensure that all .ngo registrants were actual NGOs, given their frustration with the fact that [[.org]] was an open TLD despite its intention for non-profits. A competitive initiative was announced by [[dotNGO]].<ref>[http://philanthropy.com/article/Nonprofits-May-Soon-Say/130290/ Nonprofits May Soon Say], Philanthropy.com.</ref>
  
 
== Miscellaneous ==
 
== Miscellaneous ==
* There are 8.5 million domains registered under the .org domain as of end of July, 2010.<ref>[http://www.pir.org/pdf/dashboard_1H_2010.pdf PIR's "The Dashboard," January - June, 2010]</ref>
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* There are 8.5 million domains registered under the .org domain as of end of July 2010.<ref name="dashboard"></ref>
* The [[gTLD]] registry celebrated its 25th anniversary of existence in June, 2010 by hosting a birthday bash during Music Night at ICANN 38 Brussels.
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* The [[gTLD]] registry celebrated its 25th anniversary of existence in June 2010 by hosting a birthday bash during Music Night at [[ICANN 38]] Brussels.
 
* .org registrations surpassed the growth of .com and .net by posting a percentage growth rate of 7.6% in the period January to July 2010; however, the .info domain beat them all with a growth rate of 20.0%.
 
* .org registrations surpassed the growth of .com and .net by posting a percentage growth rate of 7.6% in the period January to July 2010; however, the .info domain beat them all with a growth rate of 20.0%.
 
* North America is the largest market for .org domains, making up 64% of .org registrants.
 
* North America is the largest market for .org domains, making up 64% of .org registrants.
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
<references/>
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{{reflist}}
  
 
[[Category: Companies]]
 
[[Category: Companies]]

Revision as of 23:44, 20 November 2012

PIR Logo.png
ICANNWiki Bronze Sponsor
Type: Publicly Held
Industry: Internet, Domain registry
Founded: Reston, VA, 2002
Headquarters: 1775 Wiehle Avenue,
Suite 200
Reston, VA 20190
Country: USA
Website: PIR.org
Key People
Brian Cute, CEO
David Maher, Senior VP, Law and Policy
Maarten Botterman, Chairman
Lance Wolak, Director of Marketing and Product Management
Lawrence Martin, Director of Finance and Administration
Nancy Gofus, COO
Kim Van Wyngaardt, Executive Administrator
Lauren Price, Product Marketing Manager
Thuy LeDinh, Senior Marketing Communications Manager
nTLDStats
TLDs: 6
Registrations: 9,442

More Info: nTLDStats

Public Interest Registry (PIR) is a generic top-level Domain registry that manages the .org top level domain. The non-profit was established in January 2003 by the Virginia-based Internet Society (ISOC). PIR was formed to take over the operation and maintenance of the .org domain and its database from Verisign Global Registry Services. The organization has its office in Reston, Virginia.

As of June 2012, there are 10 million million registered .org addresses, which bring in an annual revenue of $65 million. The funds are used for operating costs and technical and organizational maintenance; the remaining funds are donated to ISOC.[1][2]

The organization is applying for .ngo through ICANN's 2012 new gTLD program.[3]

The company's backend registry services are handled by Afilias.

History

The .org top-level domain was first created in October 1984 by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority,[4] as part of its implementation of the RFC 920. Though the RFC limited the scope of the .org domain to non-profit organizations or to organizations of a non-commercial nature, over time, the scope of the domain has expanded to include any entity, whether organizational or individual, commercial or non-commercial.

The first .org domain was registered by MITRE Corporation, a non-profit organization providing systems engineering and information technology support to the US government, on July 10, 1985.

On May 25, 2001, ICANN entered into an unsponsored registry agreement with Verisign Inc. for operating the .org domain.[5] This agreement expired on December 31, 2002. A request for proposal was circulated by ICANN on May 20, 2002.[6] The Internet Society was one of the eleven applicants who put in their proposals to become the successive operator.[7] ISOC proposed to set up a separate entity, the "Public Interest Registry", to operate the .org gTLD, with the sole power to appoint its board of directors. As part of the arrangement, PIR would appoint Afilias to handle the full range of back-end registry services on behalf of PIR. The ICANN Board selected PIR as the successor operator to Verisign for managing the .org gTLD on October 14, 2002.[8] Finally, the reins of .org domain came into PIR's control in January 2003; the agreement was signed for a period of three years, expiring December 2006.

On December 8, 2006, the agreement between ICANN and PIR was renewed for another 6.5 years, and is set to expire on June 30, 2013.[9]

.org has emerged as the third-largest generic top-level domain in the world, as per the bi-annual domain name report published by PIR for dates of January to June 2010.[10]

.org Statistics

A Bi-Annual report on the growth of .org showed that as of late 2011 there were 9.6 million .org registrations. Throughout the 2011 year, .org registrations grew by 9.9%. The renewal rate for the second-half of 2011 was 75.4%. On June 24th, 2012, registration for .org passed the 10 million mark. The ten millionth registration was for jadforum.org, registered by the Jordan River and Dead Sea Basin Forum via GoDaddy. It was the 7th TLD to pass the milestone, the others being: .com, .de (2006), .net (2007), .uk (2012), .cn, and .tk.[11]

Registration of .org has consistently grown by 9% to 10% annually for the past three years.[12]

Governance

PIR is governed by a Board of Directors who are appointed by ISOC. The board is comprised of seven members, and its current Chairman is Maarten Botterman. The CEO of PIR is an ex-officio board member.

The PIR management team comprises five senior members of the organization from three departments - law and policy, marketing, and finance/operations. Ms. Alexa Raad, the original CEO of PIR, stepped down from the position on September 24, 2010. Mr. Maarten Botterman served as interim CEO until Brian Cute was appointed to the position. The organization presently has eight staff members on its payroll.

Besides the board of directors, PIR also has an advisory council, which was "created to advise on issues ranging from public policy to the introduction of new services". The council comprises members representing a broad spectrum of member organizations around the world. There are fifteen members in the present advisory council, serving a term from 2010 to 2012. The council is further organized into working groups, with mandates to provide project-based analysis and input. There are presently four working groups: IDN, Policy, DNSSEC, and Outreach & Awareness.

Deployment of DNSSEC

In April 2008, PIR submitted a request to ICANN to amend the .org registry, specifically the function of the registry and the corresponding Whois and DNS systems for the .org gTLD, in order to facilitate the use of "Domain Name System Security Extensions" (DNSSEC) as specified in RFCs 4033, 4034, 4035 and 5155.[13] The ICANN board approved this proposal in June, 2008.[14]

On June 23, 2010, Ms. Alexa Raad, PIR's CEO at that time, announced at an ICANN 38 Brussels press conference that .org has become the first generic top-level domain to offer full deployment of DNSSEC. DNSSEC had become the most robust security protocol on the internet as of 2010, and registrars who have implemented DNSSEC in their system can "offer added security protection to their customers by enabling .org website owners to sign their respective domain name with validation keys."[10]

The benefit of DNSSEC to a .org registrant is the "added ability to thwart the increased predominance of attacks like pharming, cache poisoning, DNS redirection and domain hijacking - all of which have been used to commit fraud, distribute malware and identity theft."[10]

.NGO

PIR announced ahead of the January 2012 launch of ICANN's new gTLD program that it was planning on applying for .ngo; the PIR iniatiative was a platinum sponsor of ICANN 42 in Dakar.[15] PIR also announced that it had intentions to implement an authentication process that would ensure that all .ngo registrants were actual NGOs, given their frustration with the fact that .org was an open TLD despite its intention for non-profits. A competitive initiative was announced by dotNGO.[16]

Miscellaneous

  • There are 8.5 million domains registered under the .org domain as of end of July 2010.[10]
  • The gTLD registry celebrated its 25th anniversary of existence in June 2010 by hosting a birthday bash during Music Night at ICANN 38 Brussels.
  • .org registrations surpassed the growth of .com and .net by posting a percentage growth rate of 7.6% in the period January to July 2010; however, the .info domain beat them all with a growth rate of 20.0%.
  • North America is the largest market for .org domains, making up 64% of .org registrants.

References