The domain name system allows users to refer to websites and other Internet resources using names rather than the all-numeric IP addresses assigned to each computer on the Internet. Each domain name consists of a series of character strings separated by dots. The right-most string is its top-level domain (TLD), and every TLD is managed by a single registry.
Varieties of TLDs
There are different types of TLDs.
- brand TLDs - corporations use their corporate name as their website's top-level identifier instead of .com or .biz domain space
- community TLDs relate to local events, gatherings, or organizations.
- geoTLDs represent geographical or regional areas that are not countries with three or more ASCII characters.
- nTLDs - domains that were introduced beginning in October 2013
- sTLDs - has a sponsor for a specific purpose, such as to represent a specific ethnic community, professional group, or geographical location.
Country-code TLDs are delegated to a designated ccTLD registry, which is operated by a ccTLD Manager, according to local policies that are adapted to meet the economic, cultural, linguistic, and legal circumstances of the country or territory involved.
- TLDs with two ASCII characters have been established for over 250 countries and external territories.
- TLDs with non-ASCII characters designated for a country or geographic region.
TLDs operate in different manners but can be categorized in some simple ways:
- Open - Operating and offering both registration and resolution services.
- Closed - Not accepting registrations, may be resolving evergreen/legacy/infrastructure subdomains.
Level of Restriction
- Unrestricted - If there are no requirements that must be met in order to register a name under a TLD, that TLD is Unrestricted.
- Restricted - Requiring Local Physical Address, Local Tax ID, or other specific criteria to qualify.