|Headquarters:||Edificio Bronce - Plaza Manuel Gómez Moreno s/n|
RED.ES is the registry for Spain's ccTLD, .es. The governmental organization, which is under jurisdiction of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism, was created in 2000 to transfer responsibilities from the private sector to the government.
Although RED.ES manages .es domains, actual registrations are sold and purchased through accredited registrars (end users still have the possibility to manage their domains directly through RED.ES, but at a slightly higher cost: 33,38€/year), of which there were 107 in 2023.
Most .es registrations are held in the Spanish regions of Madrid, Catalonia, Andalusia, and Valencia, in descending order of registration percentages. Madrid leads by Catalonia by over 10%, with 25.79% of all .es registrations.
A timeline for the development of .es and its governing organizations are as follows:
- 1989: The .es ccTLD is created by IRIS, which will later be known as RedIRIS; it is the Spanish National Research and Academic Network, then managed by Spain's only telecom operator, FUNDESCO.
- 1994: RedIRIS is managed by CSIC ("Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas", a Spanish national research council.
- 2000: The Spanish government decides that the .es registry should be managed by RED.ES, a newly formed government agency.
- 2003: Registration policies are partially liberalized, thus lifting some restrictions on the very restricted .es ccTLD.
- 2005: The Spanish government approves new legal provisions which lower registration fees and further liberalize registrations for .es, thus increasing the number of registrants.
- 2007: IDN]s are introduced.
- 2008: 1 million .es names are registered in July.
- 2012: After liberalizations of .es registrations, growth was quick for the ccTLD, which went from 85,000 registrations in 2004 to 1,550,000 in July 2012.
- 2022: 2 million .es names are registered