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ICANN adopted a new set of by-laws, which were first laid out by the aforementioned Evolution and Reform Committee, before being revised in response to Public Forums. Those by-laws can be read [http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/minutes-appa-31oct02.htm here]. The by-laws more clearly defined ICANN's mission and core values and improved apparatuses for review and greater transparency. The [[Reconsideration Committee]], [[IRP|Independent Review Panel]], and the [[Ombudsman]] all were strengthened as a part of this move towards a more transparent organization that is able to defend its actions and decisions.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/minutes-appa-31oct02.htm Appendix A to Minutes ICANN Board Meeting in Shanghai]. ICANN. Published 2002 October 31.</ref>
 
ICANN adopted a new set of by-laws, which were first laid out by the aforementioned Evolution and Reform Committee, before being revised in response to Public Forums. Those by-laws can be read [http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/minutes-appa-31oct02.htm here]. The by-laws more clearly defined ICANN's mission and core values and improved apparatuses for review and greater transparency. The [[Reconsideration Committee]], [[IRP|Independent Review Panel]], and the [[Ombudsman]] all were strengthened as a part of this move towards a more transparent organization that is able to defend its actions and decisions.<ref>[http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/minutes-appa-31oct02.htm Appendix A to Minutes ICANN Board Meeting in Shanghai]. ICANN. Published 2002 October 31.</ref>
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==Debates over ICANN Organization==
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==ICANN Organizational Issues==
: ''See [[ICANN Bodies]] for a list of the key players in ICANN's [[Multistakeholder Model]].''
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:''See [[ICANN Bodies]] for a list of the key players in ICANN's [[Multistakeholder Model]].''
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It is central to ICANN's mission that the organization is structured in a way that welcomes a variety of voices and seeks to represent diverse constituencies with continued interest in the Internet's development, from [[Registry|registries]], to [[:Category:Companies|corporations]], to individual Internet users. In relation to ICANN's structural development, there have been critics who have taken issue with its closed-door sessions, the role of the [[DOC|U.S. Department of Commerce]], and other structural and procedural rules.<ref>[http://sunburn.stanford.edu/~eroberts/courses/cs181/projects/the-domain-name-system/icannorg.html ICANN Organizational Structure]. Stanford University.</ref> ICANN has been described as being in a contentious oversight situation, with some countries calling for all U.S. influence to be removed from the organization by subordinating it to the U.N.'s jurisdiction, or suggesting similar solutions.<ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/28/AR2011022803719.html?hpid=topnews Obama administration joins critics of U.S. nonprofit group that oversees Internet]. The Washington Post. Published 2011 March 1.</ref> ICANN's structure and process are outlined in the [[ICANN Bylaws]].
 
It is central to ICANN's mission that the organization is structured in a way that welcomes a variety of voices and seeks to represent diverse constituencies with continued interest in the Internet's development, from [[Registry|registries]], to [[:Category:Companies|corporations]], to individual Internet users. In relation to ICANN's structural development, there have been critics who have taken issue with its closed-door sessions, the role of the [[DOC|U.S. Department of Commerce]], and other structural and procedural rules.<ref>[http://sunburn.stanford.edu/~eroberts/courses/cs181/projects/the-domain-name-system/icannorg.html ICANN Organizational Structure]. Stanford University.</ref> ICANN has been described as being in a contentious oversight situation, with some countries calling for all U.S. influence to be removed from the organization by subordinating it to the U.N.'s jurisdiction, or suggesting similar solutions.<ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/28/AR2011022803719.html?hpid=topnews Obama administration joins critics of U.S. nonprofit group that oversees Internet]. The Washington Post. Published 2011 March 1.</ref> ICANN's structure and process are outlined in the [[ICANN Bylaws]].
    
===Board of Directors===
 
===Board of Directors===
: ''Main article: [[ICANN Board]]
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: ''Main article: [[ICANN Board]]''
 
ICANN is governed by a [[ICANN Board|Board of Directors]] made up of 16 voting members (including ICANN's CEO) and four non-voting liaisons.<ref name="bylaws">[http://www.icann.org/en/general/bylaws.htm ICANN Bylaws]. ICANN.</ref> From ICANN's inception to December 2011, being a board member was a voluntary position. At that time, the [[ICANN Board]] responded to mounting pressure regarding conflicts of interest and the notion that compensation would create a more professional and accountable body by awarding themselves a $35,000 annual salary.<ref name="dotnxt">[http://news.dot-nxt.com/2011/12/13/icann-board-dec-minutes ICANN Board awards itself $35,000, developing countries $138,000, and adds to confusion with secondary timestamp]. dotnxt. Published 2011 December 13.</ref>
 
ICANN is governed by a [[ICANN Board|Board of Directors]] made up of 16 voting members (including ICANN's CEO) and four non-voting liaisons.<ref name="bylaws">[http://www.icann.org/en/general/bylaws.htm ICANN Bylaws]. ICANN.</ref> From ICANN's inception to December 2011, being a board member was a voluntary position. At that time, the [[ICANN Board]] responded to mounting pressure regarding conflicts of interest and the notion that compensation would create a more professional and accountable body by awarding themselves a $35,000 annual salary.<ref name="dotnxt">[http://news.dot-nxt.com/2011/12/13/icann-board-dec-minutes ICANN Board awards itself $35,000, developing countries $138,000, and adds to confusion with secondary timestamp]. dotnxt. Published 2011 December 13.</ref>
    
===Ombudsman===
 
===Ombudsman===
 
: ''Main article: [[Ombudsman]]''
 
: ''Main article: [[Ombudsman]]''
The [[Ombudsman]]'s function is to act as an independent, impartial, and neutral informal dispute resolution officer for the ICANN community for those who want to lodge a complaint about ICANN staff, board, or supporting organizations. The independence of this office has been questioned, as the person in this role is hired and fired by the ICANN Board and reports to the ICANN Chair. The length and indefiniteness of tenure have also debated.  
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The [[Ombudsman]] is required to offer independent, impartial, and neutral informal dispute resolution for those who want to lodge a complaint about ICANN staff, board, or supporting organizations. The independence of this office has been called into question, as the person in this role is hired and fired by the ICANN Board and reports to the ICANN Chair. The length of tenure has also been debated.
    
===GNSO===
 
===GNSO===
 
: ''Main article: [[GNSO]]''
 
: ''Main article: [[GNSO]]''
The [[Generic Names Supporting Organization]] (GNSO) brings together representatives of constituencies concerning [[gTLD]]s.<ref>[http://gnso.icann.org/ Generic Names Supporting Organization]. ICANN.</ref>
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The [[Generic Names Supporting Organization]] (GNSO) brings together representatives of constituencies concerning [[gTLD]]s.<ref>[http://gnso.icann.org/ Generic Names Supporting Organization]</ref> As such, it has received criticism on its policy development process. Namely, [[Working Group]] dynamics and how the GNSO determines that it has reached [[consensus]] have proved particularly problematic.
    
===ccNSO===
 
===ccNSO===
 
: ''Main article: [[ccNSO]]''
 
: ''Main article: [[ccNSO]]''
 
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The [[Country Code Names Supporting Organization]] (ccNSO) was created by and for [[ccTLD]] managers, which are the entities that oversee a given nation's own Country Code Top Level Domain.<ref>[http://ccnso.icann.org/about About].</ref> The main issues it faces are a shortage of candidates and a lack of transparency and accountability in its [[PDP]].
The [[Country Code Names Supporting Organization]] (ccNSO) is an advisory body within ICANN created by and for [[ccTLD]] managers, which are the entities that oversee a given nation's own Country Code Top Level Domain. The ccNSO is a consortium of working groups and the ccNSO Council, and it works in conjunction with other supporting organizations and bodies within ICANN. It was founded in 2003. It is a forum for global discussions and debates regarding issues related to ccTLDs.<ref>[http://ccnso.icann.org/about About]. Country Code Names Supporting Organisation.</ref>
      
===ASO===
 
===ASO===
 
: ''Main article: [[ASO]]''
 
: ''Main article: [[ASO]]''
 
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The [[Address Supporting Organization]] (ASO) reviews and develop [[IP|Internet Protocol]] recommendations.<ref>[http://aso.icann.org/ The Address Supporting Organization]</ref> It has been criticized for lacking a single, authoritative description of the process for global numbering policies and a lack of transparency on the difference between the roles of the [[ASO]] and the [[NRO]], which is a non-ICANN body that strongly overlaps with the ASO.
The [[Address Supporting Organization]] (ASO) is one of the supporting organizations that was formed, according to ICANN's bylaws, through community consensus in 1999. The main objective of the ASO is to review and develop [[IP|Internet Protocol]] recommendations, address policy, and advise the [[ICANN Board]].<ref>[http://aso.icann.org/ The Address Supporting Organization]. ICANN.</ref> Its members are appointed by the world's 5 [[RIR|Regional Internet Registries]] (RIRs), which manage and allocate IP addresses in their respective continental regions.<ref>[http://www.apnic.net/about-APNIC About APNIC]. APNIC.</ref><ref>[http://aso.icann.org/people/address-council/address-council-members/ Adress Council Members]. ASO.</ref>
      
===GAC===
 
===GAC===
 
: ''Main article: [[GAC]]
 
: ''Main article: [[GAC]]
The GAC is an advisory committee to ICANN, created under the ICANN ByLaws. It provides advice to ICANN on public policy aspects of ICANN’s responsibilities with regard to the Internet Domain Name System (DNS). The GAC is not a decision-making body. It advises ICANN on issues that are within ICANN’s scope. GAC advice has a particular status under the ICANN ByLaws. Its advice must be duly taken into account by the ICANN Board, and where the Board proposes actions inconsistent with GAC advice it must give reasons for doing so and attempt to reach a mutually acceptable solution. The GAC appoints a non-voting liaison to the ICANN Board. This is normally the GAC Chair.
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The GAC advises the ICANN Board on how governments will react to potential policies. The GAC has come under fire for seemingly allow the governments they represent a veto power over ICANN decisions.<ref>[https://cdt.org/insights/icann-must-follow-its-own-rules/ ICANN Must follow its own rules. CDT]</ref>
    
===ALAC===
 
===ALAC===
 
: ''Main article: [[ALAC]]
 
: ''Main article: [[ALAC]]
The At-Large Advisory Committee (ALAC) is one of [[ICANN]]'s [[AC|Advisory Committees]]. The mission of ALAC is to function as an advocate for the interests of individual Internet users.
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The At-Large Advisory Committee (ALAC) advocates for the interests of individual Internet users. ALAC was recently criticized for spending too much time on process and administrative issues, too little on policy advice, which was also considered of low quality. ALAC is also struggling with an uneven distribution of power.<ref>[https://www.icann.org/en/system/files/files/atlarge-review-final-02may17-en.pdf 2017 At-Large Review]</ref>
    
===SSAC===
 
===SSAC===
''Main article: [[SSAC]]''
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:''Main article: [[SSAC]]''
 
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SSAC was originally intended to expand and specialize the role of ICANN, and it received official recognition in 2002.<ref name="accra">[http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/prelim-report-14mar02.htm#EvolutionandReformCommittee ICANN Meeting in Accra Preliminary Report]. ICANN. Published 2002 March 14.</ref> SSAC as a body and its individual members have been criticized for their lack of communication and engagement with other ICANN bodies.<ref>[https://www.icann.org/en/system/files/files/ssac-review-final-17dec18-en.pdf 2018 SSAC Review]</ref>
This committee was originally intended to expand and specialize the role of ICANN, and it received official recognition in 2002.<ref name="accra">[http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/prelim-report-14mar02.htm#EvolutionandReformCommittee ICANN Meeting in Accra Preliminary Report]. ICANN. Published 2002 March 14.</ref>
      
===RSSAC===
 
===RSSAC===
''Main article: [[RSSAC]]''
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:''Main article: [[RSSAC]]''
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RSSAC advises ICANN on the operation, administration, security, and integrity of the Internet's Root Server System. It has come under fire for offering minimal, reactionary input rather than offering regular updates and being distrustful of non-RSO stakeholders.<ref>[https://www.icann.org/en/system/files/files/rssac-review-final-02jul18-en.pdf 2018 RSSAC Review]</ref>
    
==Process==
 
==Process==
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[[Category: Organizations]]
 
[[Category: Organizations]]
 
[[Category: Sponsor]]
 
[[Category: Sponsor]]
[[Category:Articles with Chinese]]
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[[Category: Articles with Spanish]]
 
Bureaucrats, Check users, lookupuser, Administrators, translator
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