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FTP is an acronym for  '''F'''ile '''T'''ransfer '''P'''rotocol, which is a TCP/IP based network protocol just like the [[HTTP]] used to transmit files from one computer to another through the internet. FTP is designed to transfer small multiple files such as images on a web page instead of transferring a single large file. This standard protocol supports pausing, scheduling and restarting of file downloads.
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'''FTP''' is an acronym for  '''F'''ile '''T'''ransfer '''P'''rotocol, which is a [[TCP/IP]] based network protocol just like the [[HTTP]] used to transmit files from one computer to another through the Internet. FTP is designed to transfer multiple small files such as images on a web page instead of transferring a single large file. This standard protocol supports the pausing, scheduling, and restarting of file downloads.
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==Objectives of FTP==
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===Objectives of FTP===
Based on RFC 959, FTP has four primary objectives which include:
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Based on [[RFC]] 959, FTP has four primary objectives, which are:
# promote file sharing (computer programs and/or data)
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# Promote file sharing (computer programs and/or data)
# encourage indirect or implicit use of remote computers
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# Encourage indirect or implicit use of remote computers
# shield users from variations in file storage systems among hosts
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# Shield users from variations in file storage systems among hosts
# efficient and reliable data transfer
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# Allow efficient and reliable data transfer
    
==Background==
 
==Background==
File Transfer Protocol was first introduced by [[Abhay Bhushan]] from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ([[MIT]]) Project MAC on April 16, 1971 through RFC 114, which provides the standard definition and the basic commands of the protocol enabling devices specifically computers to communicate or transfer files or messages with each other. <ref>[http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc114 RFC 114]</ref> <ref>[http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_FTPOverviewHistoryandStandards.htm FTP Overview, History and Standards]</ref>
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File Transfer Protocol was first introduced by [[Abhay Bhushan]] from the [[MIT|Massachusetts Institute of Technology]] Project MAC on April 16, 1971 through [[RFC]] 114, which provides the standard definition and the basic commands of the protocol, enabling devices (specifically computers) to communicate or transfer files or messages with each other. <ref>[http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc114 RFC 114]</ref> <ref>[http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_FTPOverviewHistoryandStandards.htm FTP Overview, History and Standards]</ref>
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RFC 114 was updated by several RFCs to improve the specifications of FTP such ad RFC 172, RFC 265. On July 8, 1972, Bhustan introduced a major revision of the FTC specifications through RFC 354. Based on the RFC, FTP aims to allow the efficient and reliable transfer of files among HOSTs as well as the convenient use of remote file storage capabilities. <ref>[http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc354 RFC 354]</ref> Subsequent RFCs were further released providing more improvements on the protocol including RFC 542 in 1973.  
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RFC 114 was updated by several RFCs to improve the specifications of FTP such ad RFC 172, RFC 265. On July 8, 1972, Bhustan introduced a major revision of the FTC specifications through RFC 354. Based on the RFC, FTP aims to allow the efficient and reliable transfer of files among hosts as well as the convenient use of remote file storage capabilities.<ref>[http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc354 RFC 354]</ref> Subsequent RFCs were further released providing more improvements on the protocol including RFC 542 in 1973.  
    
In 1974, RFCs 607, 614 and 624 proposed changes in the design of the FTP. These RFCs were followed by RFCs 686 and RFC 691, which provided additional information regarding the printing of files.
 
In 1974, RFCs 607, 614 and 624 proposed changes in the design of the FTP. These RFCs were followed by RFCs 686 and RFC 691, which provided additional information regarding the printing of files.
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The first FTP standard protocol was RFC 765, which was published by [[Jon Postel]] in June 1980. This specification described the transition of using TCP instead of NCP as the fundamental protocol for FTP. <ref>[http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc765 RFC 765]</ref>
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The first FTP standard protocol was RFC 765, which was published by [[Jon Postel]] in June, 1980. This specification described the transition of using [[TCP]] instead of [[NCP]] as the fundamental protocol for FTP.<ref>[http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc765 RFC 765]</ref>
    
==Current FTP Standard Specification==
 
==Current FTP Standard Specification==
The latest FTP standard specification implemented by the Internet Engineering Task Force ([[IETF]]) was  RFC 959 which was published by Jon Postel and [[Joyce Reynolds]] on October 1985. The current RFC included new commands such as CDUP (Change to Parent Directory), SMNT (Structure Mount), STOU (Store Unique), RMD (Remove Directory), MKD (Make Directory), PWD (Print Directory) and SYST (System).<ref>[http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc959 RFC 959]</ref>
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The latest FTP standard specification implemented by the [[IETF|Internet Engineering Task Force]] was  RFC 959 which was published by [[Jon Postel]] and [[Joyce Reynolds]] in October, 1985. The current RFC includes new commands such as CDUP (Change to Parent Directory), SMNT (Structure Mount), STOU (Store Unique), RMD (Remove Directory), MKD (Make Directory), PWD (Print Directory) and SYST (System).<ref>[http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc959 RFC 959]</ref>
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==FTP Commands==
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==Anonymous FTP==
===Access Control Commands===
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An anonymous FTP allows a remote user to securely access a certain part of a disk space by creating an FTP connection and logging on to the system using anonymous as the username and the e-mail id as password.<ref>[http://sourcedaddy.com/networking/anonymous-ftp.html Anonymous FTP]</ref>
* USER NAME (USER)
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* PASSWORD (PASS)
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* ACCOUNT (ACCT)
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* CHANGE WORKING DIRECTORY (CWD)
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* CHANGE TO PARENT DIRECTORY (CDUP)
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* STRUCTURE MOUNT (SMNT)
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* REINITIALIZE (REIN)
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* LOGOUT (QUIT)
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===Transfer Parameter Commands===
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* DATA PORT (PORT)
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* PASSIVE (PASV)
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* REPRESENTATION TYPE (TYPE)
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* FILE STRUCTURE (STRU)
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* TRANSFER MODE (MODE)
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===FTP Service Commands===
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* RETRIEVE (RETR)
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* STORE (STOR)
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* STORE UNIQUE (STOU)
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* APPEND (with create) (APPE)
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* ALLOCATE (ALLO)
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* RESTART (REST)
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* RENAME FROM (RNFR)
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* RENAME TO (RNTO)
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* ABORT (ABOR)
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* DELETE (DELE)
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* REMOVE DIRECTORY (RMD)
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* MAKE DIRECTORY (MKD)
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* PRINT WORKING DIRECTORY (PWD)
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* LIST (LIST)
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* NAME LIST (NLST)
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* SITE PARAMETERS (SITE)
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* SYSTEM (SYST)
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* HELP (HELP)
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* NOOP (NOOP)
      
==Security Issues==
 
==Security Issues==
Although the FTP was designed to transfer data efficiently and reliably, the protocol has security loopholes because data are transmitted on a plain text and it does have any provision for data encryption. Hackers can easily steal users passwords, read and monitor private files and conversations and they can also install viruses.<ref>[http://www.ncftp.com/libncftp/doc/ftp_overview.html An Overview of the File Transfer Protocol; Security Concerns]</ref> Mark Allman from NASA Glenn Research Center/Sterling Software and Shawn Ostermann from Ohio University School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science wrote RFC 2577 and identified three security problems associated with FTP such as '''Bounce Attacks''', '''Spoof attacks'''  and  '''Denial of Service Attacks''' and suggested measures to reduce or prevent security problems associated with FTP.<ref>[http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2577 RFC 2577]</ref>
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Although the FTP was designed to transfer data efficiently and reliably, the protocol has security loopholes because data is transmitted in plain text and it doesn't have any provision for data encryption. Hackers can easily steal users passwords, read and monitor private files and conversations, and they can also install viruses.<ref>[http://www.ncftp.com/libncftp/doc/ftp_overview.html An Overview of the File Transfer Protocol; Security Concerns]</ref> Mark Allman from NASA Glenn Research Center/Sterling Software and Shawn Ostermann from Ohio University School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science wrote RFC 2577 and identified three security problems associated with FTP such as '''Bounce Attacks''', '''Spoof attacks'''  and  '''Denial of Service Attacks''' and suggested measures to reduce or prevent security problems associated with FTP.<ref>[http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2577 RFC 2577]</ref>
    
==References==
 
==References==

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