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Internet of Things (IoT) is anything that can be given an IP address or unique identifier with the ability to transfer information over a network via cloud computing and data-gathering sensors.[1] This data transfer would not require human-to-human contact and mostly relies on machine-to-machine (M2M) contact mitigated by sensors. [2]

IoT devices exchange data with remote services hosted on the Internet and locate these services via the DNS protocol. They operate across two ecosystems: the DNS (and its resolver operators, authoritative name server operators, and domain registration providers) and the IoT (and its device manufacturers, device operators, and remote service providers). IoT deployments introduce new security, availability, and transparency requirements because they interact with physical space, providing an opportunity for the DNS because it is a globally pervasive infrastructure.[3] But, IoT devices also present major risks. IoT device engineers may use the DNS naively to operate their applications or misconfigure resolvers to accept DNS queries from anyone, overwhelming the DNS. Or threat actors can intentionally use IoT devices as a platform for large-scale DDoS Attacks.[4]


The IoT operates outside ICANN's remit. In SAC105, the SSAC explained that the IoT differs greatly from traditional Internet applications such as email and web browsing, but ultimately a significant number of IoT deployments will use the DNS to locate remote services to enable telemetry data transmission and collection for monitoring and analysis of sensor data.[5] The publication recommends:

  1. developing a DNS library for IoT devices;
  2. training IoT DNS professionals; # creating a shared system that enables DNS operators to share information on IoT botnets;
  3. constructing a system to enable DNS operators to handle DDoS Attacks involving IoT devices; and
  4. producing a system that enables DNS operators to measure how IoT uses the DNS.[6]

In a sponsored article, Wired Magazine outlined how building bridges and other integral infrastructure with "smart cement", using sensors involved in M2M would result in superior, more thorough tracking of bridge quality and strength. This could potentially alert engineers to any issues with structural integrity--ensuring the ability to monitor cracks and stresses. [7]

IoT and Web3 Techologies

The relationship between IoT devices and blockchain, data, and AI


  • Most IoT devices take the walled garden approach, restricting which devices and brands can work together, which undermines the ideal of freedom associated with the Internet[8]
  • IoT applications are currently siloed infrastructures, requiring IoT consumers to install and use separate apps for accessing different services and interfering with interoperability[9]
  • Evgeny Morozov[10], a Belarusian writer, researcher and critic of the Internet and its development as a commercial entity, has explored the use of IoT as an apparatus of the state. In an article for The Guardian, the writer describes the success of digital tracking as a proxy for surveillance and policing of citizens. [11]
  • Switching connectivity service providers requires hardware modifications, such as replacing the connectivity module[12]